covid 19 Vaccine Thrombosis Side Effects, Why Is It Happening?
If the Astrazeneka vaccine and Jansen vaccine are used during the covidvirus, blood clots will form one per 100,000 people (one per 50,000 people under the age of 50), resulting in a sharp drop in platelets. Platelets play a role in solidifying blood to create blood clots, and too much blood clots are accompanied by decreased platelets in the blood. In particular, blood clots occur in areas where blood clots do not usually occur, such as brain veins and intestinal veins, which are accompanied by symptoms such as headaches, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, and swelling of limbs. Thrombocytes can block blood vessels in important organs, resulting in fatal consequences. It is called Vaccine Induced Thrombocytopenia (VITT) because it occurs as a side effect of vaccination.
Since the side effects were reported in the UK in March this year, many researchers have analyzed the cause and developed hypotheses. Although the substance has not been identified yet, the scientific journal Nature reported on the 24th that it has collected research results so far.
Both the VITT-producing Astrazeneca vaccine and Jansen vaccine transplant genes containing covidvirus proteins called spikes into human cells using adenovirus as vectors (mediators) that have been eliminated from toxicity and infection. Genes that reach the cell are expressed and spike proteins are created. The human immune system then detects a spike and produces antibodies to it.
Some researchers hypothesize that impurities produced during vaccine production (a protein solution used for floating DNA fragments or virus culture) can interact with PF4 to produce blood clots. Others think the adenovirus itself could be the culprit. This is because experimental results have been reported that adenovirus injected into experimental mice combined with platelets to reduce platelets. Mach Osman of Queen’s University in Canada, who led the experiment, said it is highly likely that blood clots would have been found if mice had been tracked longer.
Even before the covidvirus pandemic, adenovirus-based vaccines against HIV or Ebola were developed, but no VITT-like symptoms have been reported when these vaccines were inoculated. However, these vaccines have never been as extensive as the Astrazeneca vaccine.
A team of hematologists at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona, Mitesi Borad found that the chimpanzee adenovirus used in the AstraZeneca vaccine had a strong negative charge. Molecular simulation showed the possibility of this adenovirus binding to a positively charged PF4 protein 8. So maybe the adenovirus caused the same reaction as heparin? It is not yet proven.
Is it because Ad26 Adenovirus, which has a low charge unlike Adenovirus, which has a strong negative charge, is used as a vector? VITT is less common among Jansen vaccinators. In addition, no association of VITT has been reported in Russia’s Sputnik V vaccinators using Ad26 and Ad5 as vectors, Dr. Borad said.
Spike proteins are also on the list of suspects. Rolf Marschlek and his colleagues, who study cancer at Goethe University in Germany, showed that RNA fragments that encode spikes could be cut off in several ways in human cells and then reassembled. Some of these pieces, called splice metamorphoses, can penetrate into the blood and bind to the cell surfaces along the blood vessels. There, it causes inflammatory reactions, which can be seen in some covidvirus infections, which in serious cases can lead to thrombosis.
Dr. Marshalek said the low clotting rate of the Janssen vaccine compared to the Astrazeneca vaccine is likely due to the design of spike RNA produced by the Janssen vaccine to remove areas that can be treated as splice mutations. He added that if the hypothesis is correct, AstraZeneca vaccines and other adenovirus-based vaccines could be safer through a similar design process.
One factor that can affect the safety of the adenovirus vaccine is how the vaccine is administered. The COVID-19 vaccine is injected into the muscles, but if the needle makes a hole in the vein, it can enter the bloodstream directly.
Leo Nikolai, a cardiologist at Ludwig Maximilian University in Germany, found that injecting astrazeneca vaccine into mice is activated by binding platelets to adenovirus, but not when injected into muscles. Professor Nikolai said that if injected into the vein inadvertently when injected, the adenovirus can combine with platelets to cause coagulation. If so, VITT can be avoided by forcing the syringe to extract a small amount of liquid from the injection site before giving the vaccine. This has already become standard practice in some countries, and Denmark has added it to its official guidelines.
From March to June 2021, 49 of the 220 people diagnosed with VITT died. Doctors are currently treating VITT by administering anti-coagulation drugs other than heparin and administering large amounts of naturally occurring antibodies from plasma donors. Antibodies compete with anti-PF4 antibodies that promote blood coagulation in platelet binding, thereby reducing their ability. “The hope is to confuse the human body and trap dangerous antibodies in a huge fog composed of normal antibodies,” Kelton said.
Dr. Philip Nicholson, a blood specialist at Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, England, is looking for drugs that can prevent platelet activation in VITT patients. However, even if the drug is found, it is not possible to launch a clinical trial. Since the first case occurred in March, the UK has changed its vaccination policy and only vaccinated AstraZeneca over 40 years old, making it impossible to see VITT patients anymore.